Sunday, 26 November 2017

Amphora Finds and Stamps - Myndos Excavations 2006-2013

A detailed paper (125 pages) in Turkish, by Gonca Gülsefa, research assistant at Uludağ University, on the amphora sherds excavated at Gümüşlük and available to read or download from academia.edu    

2006-2013 MYNDOS KAZILARINDA BULUNAN AMPHORALAR VE AMPHORA MÜHÜR BULUNTULARI

ÖZ


 Karia kentlerinden biri olan Myndos Antik Kenti, Antik yazarlarında sıkça bahsettiği gibi, Ege Denizi ile Akdeniz’in kesişme noktasında bulunmaktadır ve coğrafi konumu itibariyle önemli bir yapıya sahip kentlerden birisidir. 2006-2013 yılları arasında yapılan kazı çalışmaları sonucunda ele geçen 157 adet amphora par- çası değerlendirilmiştir. Bu amphoralardan 40 tanesi üzerinde ise mühür baskıları yer almaktadır. Bu parçaların ışığında, kentte hangi tip amphoraların kullanıldığı, kentin amphora üretimindeki yeri ve kentin ticari boyutu belirlenmek istenmiştir. Kazı çalışmalarında tespit edilen ve kökenleri belirlenerek gruplandırılan amphora buluntuları ve mühür baskılı kulpların, yerleşim alanlarında hangi dönemden itibaren ne oranda kullanım görüldükleri, üretilen ve tüketilen, ticareti yapılan malların ve bu alanların sosyo-ekonomik durumları tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Amphora buluntuları içerisinde, İ.Ö. 6. yüzyıldan başlayarak, İ.S. 7. yüzyıla kadar olan dönemi kapsayan tipler yer almaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Karia, Myndos, Amphora, Amphora Mühürü, Dressel 2-4, Kos.

Amphora Finds and its Stamps which Were Found between 2006-2013 Myndos Excavation

Abstract


The ancient city of Myndos, which is one of the Carian cities, mentioned frequently by the ancient authors. It is located at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea. It has an important structure with its geographical location. 157 pieces amphora sherds are evaluated which were found during the excavations carried out between the years of 2006-2013. There are seal impressions on 40 pieces of these amphorae. In the light of these sherds, the types of amphoras which were used in the city, the position of the city in terms of producing amphorae and the commercial size of the city wanted to be determined. Also, of amphorae finds and seal impressions which are defined by the excavations and grouped by identifying their origin, from what period and what extent they were seen in the residential areas, the produced, consumed and traded goods and socio- economic status have been tried to be determined. Amongst the amphorae finds, there are types which are covering the periods from 6th century BC and 7th century AD. Keywords: Caria, Myndos, Amphora, Amphora Stamp, Dressel 2-4, Kos.

Sunday, 19 November 2017

One to look out for in 2018

A paper by Asst Prof Dr Oktay Dumankaya titled “2014 Myndos Eastern Harbour Bathymetric Study and First Assessment” is due to be published in March 2018’s edition of the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. The paper is available to preview now (pay to view) at onlinelibray.wiley

I was fortunate enough to see an early draft of the paper, it compares the bathymetric features surveyed by Lt Cdr Graves RN in 1837 (UKHO chart 1531) and the results of digital bathymetric survey of the harbour in 2014.


Additionally but not directly associated with Gümüşlük or Myndos is another paper (which I missed first time around) by Dr Dumankaya describing five harbour structures, six piers, and a breakwater on Salih Island (north of Torba opposite Güvercinlik and Kuyucak Mevkii.)

Google Maps (pointer identifies the island not the site of the reported harbour structures)


The paper (in Turkish) was given at the 2nd International Symposium Of Turgut Reis And Turkish Maritime History in Nov 2013 and titled “Salih Adasi (Karyandaantik Kenti ?) Liman Araştirmasi” “Salih Island (The Ancient City Of Karyanda?) Harbor Research” and is available to download as a PDF from  academia.edu and researchgate.net

Özet:
Bu makalenin konusunu Muğla ili, Bodrum ilçesi idari sınırları içerisinde yer alan Salih Adası (Karyanda Antik Kenti ?) limanyapıları oluşturmaktadır. Söz konusu adanın kıyı hattında, ada limanı ile ilişkili birçok yapı kalıntısı tespit edilmiştir. Bu yapı kalıntılarının Hellenistik ve Geç Antik Çağ’a ait olduğu görülmektedir. Tespit edilen liman yapılarının bölgedeki diğer örnekler ile karşılaştırmaları, tarihlendirmeleri ve bu yapı kalıntılarının hangi kente ait olduğunun sorgulanması makalenin konusunu oluşturmaktadır.
Abstract:
This article concerns with the harbour structures that Salih Island shoreline located in the Province of Muğla, district of Bodrum (The ancient city of Karyanda ?). Many remains of structures associated with the harbor have been identified at the costal line of the island. These structures might be dated back to the Hellenistic and late ancient period. Comparisons of identified harbor structures with other harbor structures in the region, dating of the structures and questioning of which city they belong to are the subject of this article.

Wednesday, 1 November 2017

Myndos (Asar Adasi) Geç Antik Dönem Seramikleri - Late Antiquity Pottery of (Asar Island) Myndos

One for the pot experts and those who know their Hayes classifications, a paper by Sinan Mimaroğlu Asst. Assoc. Dr. Mustafa Kemal University Antakya-Hatay, published in Ege University’s Journal of Art History  Vol XXVI Oct 17 and available to download from Academia.edu (only available in Turkish)

Abstract:

Ancient city of Myndos was one of Carian Cities in the antiquity and is located within the administrative boundaries of Gumusluk locality of Bodrum District in modern Turkey’s Muğla Province.

Apart from information recounted in works of antique and modern travelers, the very first study on this city was the underwater exploration conducted in and around Myndos by INA (Institute of Nautical Archaeology) in 1980 whereupon 10 amphoras, similar to those found in Yassiada Shipwreck which were aged for 4th century A.D. Underwater and surface studies were carried out between 2004 and 2006 which were led by Prof. Dr. Mustafa Sahin. The ground surveys carried out in 2008 revealed a monumental structure on Asar Island whereupon first scientific excavation works have started in 2009.*

The layers of structures beginning earliest from the Hellenistic period were revealed by the studies on the hill. In the Late Antiquity, basilica and houses and cisterns were built on top of the hill. The most recent layer features fortified walls dating the Late Byzantium Era.

Present study is the first that focuses on ceramics that were excavated between the years 2009-2013 from Asar Island (a.k.a. Rabbit Island) which overlooks the Myndos.

The ceramics examined in this study are from Late Antiquity of common wares and include cooking and heating pots, lids and Late Roman Red-Slip Wares. The ceramics provide important data concerning Late Antique settlements in the site and clues much needed to understand the fabric of the settlement.

www.academia.edu LATE_ANTIQUITY_POTTERY_OF_ASAR_ISLAND_MYNDOS

Saturday, 2 September 2017

Amphorae and Amphora Stamps of Myndos in the Hellenistic Period

Link to a poster titled Amphorae and Amphora Stamps of Myndos in the Hellenistic Period  on academia.edu

The poster was presented by Gonca Gülsefa of Uludağ University at the International Association for Research on Pottery of Hellenistic Period (IARPotHP) conference in June this year.


Sunday, 6 August 2017

Drone flight over Kocadağ

A short YouTube clip of a drone flight over Kocadağ showing the remains of the Lelegian Wall with one of the lime kilns that probably contributed to the wall’s demise.

It's only just over 4 minutes long but for those with a short attention span you can scroll forward to 3:25 for a close up of the wall




Thursday, 1 June 2017

Two More Romans in Myndos circa 80 BC


During the search for information into Cassius’ time at Myndos I came across a reference to two more Romans residing in the city, Lucius Magius and Lucius Fannius.

L. Magius & L. Fannius, who were later to be declared enemies of the state by the Senate, had fought with Gaius Flavius Fimbria in the 1st Mithridian War. Following Fimbria’s death in 85 BC they sided with Mithridates before aligning themselves with Sulla.

At what point they moved to Myndos is unclear but they were living there circa 80 BC and are named in In Verrem Cicero’s trial of Gaius Verres (Cic. Ver. 2.1.86 – 88) which took place in Rome 10 years later.

Miletus had a fleet of 10 ships which were gifted or funded by Rome on the understanding that, when required, they could be called into service by the republic.

Verres, a legate in the service of Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella governor of Cillicia, had requested a ship from the Milesian fleet to escort him to Myndos. In Cicero’s account “They immediately gave him a light vessel, a beautiful one of its class, splendidly adorned and armed”. On his arrival Verres sold the ship to Magius and Fannius, dismissing the Milesian captain and crew, directing them to return to Miletus by foot.

Cicero summing up the theft says:

 “O ye immortal gods! the incredible avarice, the unheard-of audacity of such a proceeding! Did you dare to sell a ship of the Roman fleet, which the city of Miletus had assigned to you to attend upon you?”

Magius’ and Fannius’ date of departure from Myndos is not recorded; however by 76 BC they were delivering letters from Mithridates to Quintus Sertorius in Italy, an action which resulted in the senate declaring them enemies of the state and issuing an order for them to be apprehended. They avoided capture, delivered Mithridates’ letters and were later documented sailing between Sertorius’ naval base at Dianium to Sinope in Portus to deliver Sertorius’ reply.

In the C. D Yonge translation on Perseus Tuft, Gaius Verres is referred to as Caius Verres but other sources use Gaius or Gaius (Caius).

The Yonge translation also refers to Lucius Magius’ partner as Lucius Rabius, most other sources I’ve seen name him as Lucius Fannius

M. Tullius Cicero. The Orations of Marcus Tullius Cicero, literally translated by C. D. Yonge. London. George Bell & Sons. 1903. Perseus Digital Library 



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Monday, 22 May 2017

Cassius - The Battle of Myndos

AN630780001001CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 © Trustees of the British Museum



The silver denarius above, now held in the British Museum, was struck to celebrate Cassius’ capture of Rhodes following the battle of Myndus.

The design on the reverse of the coin shows the rose of Rhodes and an untied diadem on the left; with a crab, representing Cos, holding an aplustre, the ornamented stern post of a ship, in its claws, on the right.

Appian writing approximately 200 years later describes the battle in his The Civil Wars

App. BC 4.9.71 Perseus Digital Library at Tufts

"Alexander and Mnaseas, the Rhodian leaders, put to sea with their thirty-three ships against Cassius at Myndus, intending to surprise him by the suddenness of their attack. They built their hopes somewhat lightly on the supposition that by sailing against Mithridates at Myndus they had brought that war to a successful end. In order to display their seamanship they took their station the first day at Cnidus. The next day they showed themselves to the forces of Cassius on the high sea. The latter in astonishment put to sea against them, and it was a battle of strength and skill on both sides. The Rhodians with their light ships darted swiftly through the enemy's line, turned around, and attacked them in the rear. The Romans had heavier ships, and whenever they could come to close quarters they prevailed, as in an engagement on land, by their greater strength. Cassius, by reason of his more numerous fleet, was enabled to surround his enemy, and then the latter could no longer turn and dart through his line. When they could only attack in front and then haul off, their nautical skill was of no avail in the narrow space where they were confined. The ramming with their prows and broadside movements against the heavier Roman ships did little damage, while those of the Romans against the lighter vessels were more effective. Finally, three Rhodian ships were captured with their crews, two were rammed and sunk, and the remainder took flight to Rhodes in a damaged condition. All of the Roman ships returned to Myndus, where they were repaired, the greater part having suffered injury."


Contrary to what is written in some of the local websites and guides Cassius and Brutus did not flee to Myndos following the assassination of Julius Caesar. Cassius had been recruiting troops in Syria and had fought at Laodicea before arriving at Myndos. It is not known how long Cassius’ fleet was stationed at Myndos but Appian (4.9.65) states that as the Rhodians were renowned for their naval skills “he prepared his own ships with care, filled them with troops, and drilled them at Myndus”.

It seems highly unlikely that Brutus ever visited Myndos, at least during the period between the assassination and the final battle at Philippi. At the time Cassius was taking Rhodes Brutus was in Lycia.